On the Scene: We went to the Eaton Experience Center to see the grid’s future

Eaton Xperience center

Eaton is one of those companies that does everything without you realizing it, with innovations for industries as diverse as aviation, data centers, food and beverage, rail and, of course, utilities, just to name a few. The company recently expanded its Experience Center in Pittsburgh to show the latest advances in electrical power quality, energy management and safety in a real-world, hands-on setting for interested customers, electrical contractors, consultants and builders in need of training.

In other words, it is a playground for engineers. Everything around the building, except maybe the coffee maker, is labeled, which isn’t just useful for novices like me.

eaton experience center“We’ve had engineers come in here and we’ve asked them to identify a transformer, and they couldn’t do it. They could easily point to the symbol on a design, but they don’t always see them in real life,” noted Dan Carnovale, Power Systems Experience Center manager for Eaton, which again shows the practicality and importance of the Experience Center.

The Solar Builder team stopped by to take it all in, and believe me, it was a lot to take in. Full disclosure: I was showed a lot of stuff and took a lot of notes as fast as I could. That notepad contains in-depth info on super capacitors that aid in solar smoothing, substation vs. pad-mounted transformers, balancing voltage regulation on a larger scale, aggregating string inverters in larger applications and more. The formula for cold fusion might be in there somewhere, but we will never know because they are illegible and incoherent. But that’s OK because the Experience Center isn’t about relaying those details, it’s about the experience, duh.

chris crowell at eatonExperiencing the Experience

The facility includes a functioning microgrid demonstration. There is a 24-kW solar canopy in the parking lot, 86 panels on the roof, 30 kWh in battery storage and a 100-kW generator, all of which are controlled by Eaton’s Power Xpert Energy Optimizer controller. The intersection of all those assets and optimizing their usage is at the core of advancing energy resiliency, so that Eaton’s Experience Center can operate even when the local utility grid may be impacted by an outage.

The standout display plays out two fault scenarios on a small grid that involves three local controllers and one master controller: You enter into an artificial neighborhood, complete with fake squirrels in fake trees. Suddenly, the room gets dark, a thunder rumble is heard and lightning strikes a tree that topples into an electric pole.

Scenario one plays out with no automation. The fault is triggered and the recloser fires and keeps closing, but power won’t be restored until a truck is rolled. Scenario two plays out with automation and is able to isolate the fault and restore power to the critical loads on the microgrid downstream.

Trust me, it was cool.

Animatronic show aside, it feels like we are looking at the future of the grid, not just in terms of the technology, but the mindset needed for deploying and managing distributed energy resources in ways that are much more efficient and economical than how things are done today.

— Solar Builder magazine

Intersolar North America Showcase: Here’s what to see at this year’s trade show

APsystems: True three-phrase microinverters

APsystems YC1000

APsystems boasts an industry best-selling 3-phase solar microinverter and the industry’s first true 3-phase (phase-balanced & phase-monitored) unit, the YC1000-3. This model handles 208V or 277Y/480V grid voltages with 900 watts maximum output, 95 percent peak efficiency and comes with ZigBee communication and integrated ground. At 480V up to 11 units (44 modules total, 60- or 72-cell) can be linked in a single 15A circuit, and up to 14 solar modules (7x YC500s) in a string with a 20A breaker. Designed to operate from -40 F to 149 F degrees. Ten and 25-year warranties are available. Booth 9245.

Boviet Solar: Debuting two new solar modules

Boviet Solar

A new 290-W, 60-cell polycrystalline diamond-cut PERC solar module is one of the newest products from Boviet Solar’s full PERC production line completed in 2016. Also on display will be the new 300-W monocrystalline PERC Smart Module designed to harvest 25 percent more energy. In addition to free, 24-hour monitoring per module, the Smart Module also has module-level voltage shutdown to offer greater installer and firefighter safety. Booth 8317.

Ciel et Terre: Making floating PV happen in the U.S.

hydrelio floating solar

Ciel et Terre has completed large-scale floating PV systems in various market applications and countries, showcasing FPV as a real alternative to traditional PV in roof-top and ground-mounted systems. In the past year, the organization increased its U.S. reach with its first public utility project in Orlando, alongside its local Florida representative D3 Energy and in partnership with the Orlando Utilities Commission. Ciel et Terre installed a 31.5-kWp floating solar system on the OUC’s storm water storage reservoir, a dead water space at the facility, and is expected to generate up to 51,000 kWh per year. Booths 9744 and 9745.

Eaton: Control system to simplify microgrid deployment

Eaton microgrid system

Designed for critical applications requiring secure, efficient and reliable power, Eaton’s newest solution is engineered to deploy stand-alone power systems using existing and new assets with the adaptability to easily meet future needs. The system incorporates Eaton’s new Power Xpert energy optimizer controller and provides a modular, scalable approach to microgrid control, as well as accompanying services, such as microgrid feasibility studies, total system design, control system deployment, integration with existing third-party generation assets and critical loads, project implementation, commissioning and system start-up, and ongoing maintenance. Booth 8310.

EcoFasten Solar: New standing seam metal roofing application

EcoFasten

EcoFasten Solar has launched its newest product, SimpleBlock, a solution designed specifically for standing seam metal roofing applications. The versatile SimpleBlock provides a variety of options through compatibility with any rack manufacturer’s connection points (L-feet, posts), and will fit any double-lock standing seam. When used in conjunction with EcoFasten’s Mid-Clamp, SimpleBlock becomes a rail-free racking system featuring integrated bonding. The system meets and exceeds all known building codes and is UL 2703 listed, with product compliance determined through rigorous, uncompromised testing per UL 2703: First Edition. Due to such an overwhelming response to this innovative system, EcoFasten Solar is gearing up for high volume manufacturing to meet industry demand and will also be unveiling additional configurations for more seam options soon. Booth 9433.

Fronius: Offering its next generation solar solution

Fronius

Fronius introduces its next generation of solar systems to the industry, the Fronius Smart Solution. This satisfies all needs for residential and commercial systems: flexible system design, shade mitigation, NEC compliance, high performance and state-of-the art monitoring while keeping the number of components low and installation easy. The Fronius Smart Solution combines the benefits of traditional MLPE such as microinverters or DC optimizers with the ease of installation and cost-effectiveness of string inverters. The Fronius Smart Solution is the combination of cell-string optimized modules, the Fronius Rapid Shutdown Box, a Fronius SnapINverter, the optional Fronius Smart Meter and the Fronius Solar.web online monitoring portal. Check it out for yourself at the Fortune Energy booth. Booth 8519.

Heyco: A solution for every cable need

Heyco solar clips

Heyco’s new Edge Clips are ideal for use where holes cannot be used and adhesives are not acceptable due to temperature issues. If these won’t work, check out Heyco’s new SunRunner Vidrios, which are designed to mount directly onto the glass panel with compression force only — perfect for frameless PV modules. If neither of those pique your interest, check out Heyco’s SunBundler. Though not new to Heyco’s offering, the Heyco SunBundler has been receiving a lot of attention due to its 20 year warranty and unique design. Check them out at the CED Greentech booth. Booth 8311.

Ideal Power: The latest in power conversion innovation

Ideal Power

Ideal Power’s newest Stabiliti Series power conversion system is a grid-resilient 30-kW advanced power conversion system for system integrators and project developers who need to efficiently connect distributed energy resources to the grid. Stabiliti is the next generation of Ideal Power’s patented Power Packet Switching Architecture (PPSA) technology and incorporates numerous new features and benefits for commercial and industrial customers. The Stabiliti Series is available in two versions: dual port AC-DC bi-directional and multi-port AC-DC-DC bi-directional. Ideal Power’s John Merritt will be speaking on July 10 from 12-12.30 p.m. at the ‘‘Islands, Mini-Grids, Microgrids & Energy Storage’’ session. His talk will explain how solar-plus-storage systems can become microgrid-enabled with multi-port conversion technologies, creating energy resilience and reducing reliance on backup generators. Booth 8110.

JLM Energy: Patent-pending ‘microstorage’ technology

JLM Energy Phazr

Phazr, the first in JLM’s MicroStorage family of products, is mounted seamlessly behind the solar panel. Phazr is designed for large-scale, solar-plus-storage applications and is also perfectly suited for smaller residential and commercial installs. The simultaneous nature of electron flow is unique to JLM’s patent-pending technology. This is included in JLM’s energy technology bundle and is operated by Measurz software, which continually observes energy usage patterns and utilizes a variety of strategies to maintain a pre-set budget determined by the customer. Booth 8134.

Pika Energy: Partnership with Panasonic on solar smart battery

Pika_MAY17_006_web

Panasonic Eco Solutions North America and U.S.-based inverter manufacturer Pika Energy Inc. are partnering to offer a DC-coupled solar smart battery — Harbor 10P/15P — that will begin shipping in late 2017 and is available for pre-order today. The solar-ready Harbor Smart Battery combines Panasonic’s Lithium-Ion battery modules and Pika Energy’s power electronics in a slim, floor-standing, wall-mounted enclosure to provides 10 kWh or 15 kWh of usable energy and up to 6.7 kW of continuous power. Booth 8318.

Preformed Line Products: Speeding up rail-less mounting

Preformed Line Products

Maneuvering mounting rails can be the most demanding part of installing rooftop solar modules. But now installers can avoid that — and mount modules faster and easier — with the POWER DISK rail-less mounting system from Preformed Line Products. POWER DISK is a unique roof attachment that can go anywhere on residential rooftops. It does not need to be secured to rafters. Install solar modules in four simple steps: 1. Snap chalk lines. 2. Mount POWER DISK bases anywhere on the roof deck. 3. Set solar modules in place. 4. Spin the disks to vertically adjust height to roof undulations. Booth 9449.

Quick Mount: New series for comp/asphalt shingle roofs

Quick Mount

Quick Mount PV engineered its patented Elevated Water Seal Technology into an integrated L-foot and flashing for cost-effective, super-fast, single-bolt installation with unparalleled waterproofing. The L-Mount Series comes in single- and double-slot options for maximum versatility and works with all leading racks. L-Mounts are designed for simple lag-bolt installation onto existing composition/asphalt shingle roofs. The L-Mount features a 9-in. by 12-in. aluminum flashing with alignment notches and rounded corners to easily slide under shingles and speed installation. No shingle cutting required. Like all Quick Mount PV products, the L-Mount meets or exceeds roofing industry best practices and comes with a 25-year warranty. Available in mill or black finish. Booth 9411.

RBI Solar: Ground mount, ballasted, roof mount and canopy solutions

RBI solar Logo

RBI Solar is one of the top turn-key solar mounting solutions suppliers in the United States for ground mount, ballasted landfills, roof mounts and canopy/carport structures. As a single-source provider for commercial and utility-scale PV projects, all responsibility for the design, engineering, manufacturing and installation of the most efficient PV Racking systems in the marketplace is completed in-house by the RBI Solar Team. Committed to providing value from conception to completion, RBI Solar’s customers receive cost-effective and durable racking solutions for each project site to aide in reducing the overall project costs. Booth L9008.

SimpliPhi: Plug-and-play storage

SimpliPhi - AccESS - 300 DPI

Developed in partnership with installers, SimpliPhi Power’s AccESS has been installed in a variety of locations, including a commercial “glamping” resort, Flying Flags, and is positioned for hundreds of residential installations in partnership with Civic Solar’s SGIP projects. The AccESS provides power security that is safe, reliable, non-hazardous and efficient. The fully integrated solution includes the SimpliPhi award-winning battery technology, Schneider Electric inverter charge controller, associated power electronics and overall system management. Pre-programmed software settings and performance monitoring complete the solution. Booth 8124.

Smappee Plus: New advanced energy monitoring

Smappee Plus

Now entering the U.S. solar market, Smappee Plus is the latest innovation from Smappee’s burgeoning energy monitoring solutions which have seen widespread adoption across Europe since 2012. The product combines Smappee’s patented NILM (Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring) technology with submetering clamps to measure real-time energy use from appliances throughout a user’s home including those with variable output or similar energy consumption patterns, giving previously undetectable transparency to energy use. Head to the Impress Lounge across the street from the Moscone Center for more info.

Solar-Log: Enhanced PV monitoring portal allows for more installer services

solar log pv monitoring

Solar-Log’s new WEB Enerest is an enhanced PV monitoring portal that works in combination with Solar-Log’s data loggers to offer better monitoring and more efficient optimization of solar power usage. The new Solar-Log WEB Enerest portal is available in three different service levels and price classes to respond even more precisely to the differing needs of individual customer groups. The most advanced XL package allows installers and service providers to centrally monitor their entire fleet from one portal. This premium version provides near real-time visualization of plant error messages which can be quickly evaluated and managed. The portal allows the operator to remotely configure the Solar-Log®device, customize the portal design, and define plant owners’ access to the yield and plant information. Automated reports, integrated weather data comparison and the option to combine several plants with one account are just some of the comprehensive functions. Booth 9121.

SunModo: Debuting new solar awnings to shield windows, generate energy

sunmodo awning

The concept is simple: Replace traditional metal and fabric awnings with solar-power-generating panels that provide necessary protection from the elements while also replacing traditional electricity usage. That concept is coming to the marketplace as the SunShield awning system. It is being introduced by SunModo, a company that makes durable, easy-to-install professional racking systems. The SunShield awning system features a durable triangular aluminum frame as structural truss; and expands to a 35-degree tilt angle once installed. This compact triangle frame design easily accommodates both 60 and 72 cell solar panels. What’s more, SunShield opens the awning industry to 30 percent tax credits and provides a substantial new canvas for solar power generation. Booth 9539.

Tabuchi America: Expanded storage capacity

Tabuchi

Originally launched in the United States at Intersolar 2015, Tabuchi America is debuting the 2nd generation model of its Eco Intelligent Battery System (EIBS). Tabuchi’s all-in-one, easy-to-install system includes a 5.5-kW solar inverter and stackable 6-kWh lithium-ion batteries. The Tabuchi EIBS has the intelligence to maximize a homeowner’s savings in real time across different electricity tariffs. This DC-coupled system will meet advanced inverter requirements and will be 9540 compliant. Booth 8121.

Trojan Battery: AGM battery designed for solar installs

Trojan Battery

Trojan Battery Co. is launching a new line of maintenance-free, true deep-cycle absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries specifically designed for solar and other renewable energy applications. The new Trojan Solar AGM line is manufactured in the U.S. Offering a three-year warranty for stationary applications, and tested to an eight-year design life under IEC 61427 standard for solar batteries, this initial release includes a wide range of Trojan Solar AGM models. With its non-spillable design, the new Trojan Solar AGM batteries enable installers to customize the use and position of the batteries in customer applications. Booth 8128.

— Solar Builder magazine

1,500-volt systems to trend in 2017: Here’s what you need to know

SolarBOS-cutline

SolarBOS combiner

Large-scale solar projects are heading into yet another sea change: the 1,500-volt PV system (Vdc). The idea behind the voltage increase is the same now as it was during the move from 600 volts to 1,000 volts — further reduce installation costs and increase profitability by reducing the number of inverters and other BOS components required.

“But there is a difference this time,” notes TJ Kanczuzewski, president of Inovateus Solar located in South Bend, Ind. As a solar EPC and distributor, Inovateus Solar was one of the first solar companies to be introduced to 1,000 Vdc from 600 Vdc and has seen these types of technology transitions before. “Today’s 1,500 Vdc are more sophisticated systems than we’ve ever had before.”

Advanced Intelligence

Kanczuzewski relays his experience designing projects with Schneider Electric’s new Conext SmartGen 1,500-Vdc inverters, which can record and store operations and service history, as well as upload all of this data and self-diagnostics to the cloud.

“The Conext system also offers 30-year service life and a minimum of 15 years before the first major service,” he says. “So, this time, these systems are very intelligent as well as powerful.”

And this is just the beginning as all of your favorite inverter brands start to launch and ramp up production on their product lines. At the 2016 Solar Power International, Yaskawa-Solectria Solar, one of the most widely installed brands, pre-announced its 1,500-Vdc, utility-scale string inverter, the SLX 1500 line. These inverters will be available at various power levels and AC voltages, but adding in its Wireless Mesh network eliminates the need for communication wiring, reducing communications and BOS cost.

“In addition, the Wireless Mesh proves to simplify commissioning, has robust/secure networking, advanced grid functionality, superior asset management and improves response time,” says Natalie Holtgrefe, senior marketing manager for Yaskawa-Solectria Solar.

RELATED: How optimizers bridge the gap to 1,500-volt PV systems 

But is it safe?

Regardless of ancillary benefits, being an early adopter to such a step up in voltage carries risk.
“There is a lack of understanding in the industry concerning incident energy and arc flash risk. This is true for 1,000-Vdc systems and clearly becomes more important in 1,500-Vdc systems,” says SolarBOS CTO Coel Schumacher.

BOS equipment provides overcurrent protection and disconnecting means used for system operation and maintenance and must be accessible to personnel. Due to the nature of photovoltaic installations, there are a significant number of sources that aggregate in BOS equipment, and a series of devices are typically used to achieve this.

“While it is possible to isolate these devices, the long runs between them make it inconvenient as well as difficult to isolate a device by a means within line of sight,” Schumacher continues. “If the device is not completely isolated, portions of the equipment remain energized. This poses an arc flash risk and yet there is no consensus on how to evaluate that risk, much less how much risk there truly is.”

SolarBOS offers BOS equipment including combiners and recombiners with various options for circuit count, current ratings, OCPD and disconnecting means. On the AC side of the inverter, SolarBOS offers configurable switchgear that is necessary for string inverter implementation.

Yaskawa-Solectria Solar’s DISCOM 1500 string combiners offer various options that make design and safety easier for installers, including MC4/H4 connectorized wire whips, compression lug studs and heavy gauge bus bars.

Eaton, which has extensive experience in managing DC circuits in other high voltage DC environments such as battery storage systems, rail systems and steel mills, reminds us that the call for 1,500-volt safety extends to the equipment, too.

“At 1,500 Vdc, there is substantially higher voltage stress on the solar modules, which can make modules more susceptible to potential induced degradation (PID),” says John Vernacchia, segment manager for renewable energy at Eaton. “Only a few years ago, PID had a disastrous effect on many solar projects. As developers look at using this higher voltage technology, caution should be taken to use PID-resilient solar modules and to use grounded arrays. Past experience has shown that floating arrays are significantly more sensitive to PID due to the negative voltage bias placed on the solar modules.”

Eaton’s 1,500-Vdc inverters will employ a new proprietary DC design concept that replaces manual DC disconnects with DC contactors to improve both control and enhance operator safety.

Eaton’s 1,500-Vdc inverters will employ a new proprietary DC design concept that replaces manual DC disconnects with DC contactors to improve both control and enhance operator safety.

Reducing BOS costs

As dazzling as the new capabilities are, the potential BOS cost reductions are just as enticing for an industry constantly having to prove its economic worth. GTM Research estimates that overall project costs can be reduced by three to five percent by moving to 1,500-Vdc systems, realized mainly through reduced installation time and fewer components.

SolarBOS’s Schumacher says the 1,500-Vdc projects they’ve done are acting as flagship installations to prove the benefits of higher voltage systems. In general, he says, BOS equipment becomes more energy dense and cost effective at 1,500 Vdc.

“In addition 1,500-Vdc systems lend themselves to higher AC voltages [600 Vac or more], which helps to reduce AC conductor and switchgear cost,” Schumacher says.

Eaton developed its Crouse-Hinds series DC collection system, Sunnector, to reduce costs and installation time in these utility-scale solar projects. This system can help reduce labor and material costs by 15 percent on average, according to Vernacchia, in 5 MW and larger-scale, grid-tied solar projects that use fixed-tilt ground-mount racking designs.

A key here is using aluminum for long-distance runs, but still incorporating copper connections to the PV modules. This way contractors are able to use standard copper connectivity and tools, while project owners are able to reduce costs by taking advantage of lower cost aluminum wire.

Yaskawa-Solectria’s SLX 1500 line and Wireless Mesh network eliminates the need for communication wiring, reducing communications and BOS cost.

Yaskawa-Solectria’s SLX 1500 line and Wireless Mesh network eliminates the need for communication wiring, reducing communications and BOS cost.

So, where are we?

Holtgrefe says Yaskawa-Solectria Solar is seeing considerable demand for 1,500 Vdc in utility-scale projects. However, 95 percent of demand in the C&I space is still for 1,000-Vdc products. Her expectation is for the C&I space to move toward 1,500-Vdc systems at a slower rate of adoption than utility-scale.

“We’ll need to educate our customers about this new offering and help them understand the value,” Kanczuzewski says. “Code standards will need to be revised in some areas, and different utilities may have their own guidelines, so installers will need to make sure that 1,500 Vdc is compliant or show how 1,500 Vdc is becoming the new standard. We can always go back to 1,000-Vdc systems if our customers require it, but we hope we’ll be able to transition quickly.

“Inovateus went through the same type of customer education and standards review with the transition to 1,000 Vdc, but we expect that 1,500 Vdc will overcome any hurdles and become the norm within the next two to three years.”

Chris Crowell is the managing editor of Solar Builder.

— Solar Builder magazine

New tool from Eaton to ease utility integration of distributed energy resources

Power management company Eaton launched a new software tool designed to help utilities of all sizes efficiently and accurately integrate distributed energy resources without adversely impacting reliability and power quality. The Integration Capacity Analysis module is one of the latest additions to Eaton’s CYMETM software platform that provides customized electrical system studies that address customers’ unique applications to reduce costs, increase efficiency and improve performance. Eaton will showcase the new software tool at the DistribuTECH Conference and Exhibition in San Diego from January 31 through February 2, 2017.

eaton DER utility

Results of the ICA displayed on a feeder one-line circuit diagram. A Google map is shown in the background to illustrate how a utility would typically communicate CYME analysis results to customers and promoters willing to interconnect. This would ultimately be published in the utility website.

“Today’s utilities are faced with growing energy demand amid accelerated distributed energy resource deployment and process interconnection requests,” said Daniel Desrosiers, general manager of CYME solutions at Eaton. “Our new CYME Integration Capacity Analysis module delivers accurate assessment of distribution system generation and load hosting capacity to quickly provide utilities with the knowledge needed to simplify current and future infrastructure growth challenges.”

How does it work?

The CYME Integration Capacity Analysis module is designed to reduce labor and human error by allowing engineers to run simulations without the use of manual tools. A minimum number of parameters, such as the maximum capacity to consider and the peak and minimum load conditions, are required before the assessment can be performed on a complete or partial model of the distribution system.

RELATED: Utility model ‘is not only energy inefficient, it’s financially inefficient’ 

The maximum hosting capacity is then determined based on a set of user-defined thresholds referring to a list of criteria that includes thermal overloads, reverse power flow, abnormal steady-state voltages, transient voltage variations (flicker), reduction of protection reach and sympathetic tripping. The powerful reporting capabilities of the CYME software enable users to publish color-coded hosting capacity circuit maps to help customers and developers determine suitable locations for distributed energy resource (DER) interconnection projects.

Using its CYME software tools, Eaton’s engineering team is providing turnkey solutions – from basic to complex, specialized studies – that rapidly identify the parameters critical in the design of specific installations or complete networks. Turnkey solutions include network modeling, initial network performance diagnostics and a wide range of power engineering studies, ranging from transient phenomenon to strategic investment plans.

 

— Solar Builder magazine

SPI Preview: Central inverters up the voltage, add capabilities

ABB

Large-scale systems are becoming more powerful and more advanced, at least if the show floor of Solar Power International this year is any indication.

Alencon Systems LLC will unveil the latest generation of its unique PV harvesting and central inverter solution at booth 3023. Major highlights of Alencon Systems’ PV optimizer and central inverter solution include the recently developed third generation of String Power Optimizers and Transmitters (SPOTs), the company’s powerful DC-DC optimizers that are capable of stepping up the voltage harvested from PV arrays to any DC voltage upward of 2,500 volts while performing maximum power point tracking (MPPT) on up to four strings of solar panels at once. Additionally, Alencon will be demonstrating its patented PV-IoT solution, which provides granular monitoring of the performance of a utility-scale PV installation. At the heart of Alencon Systems’ solution is its Grid Inverter Package (GrIP) central inverter that scales up quickly to the multi-megawatt level in 2.5-MW increments.

Eaton

Eaton

Power management company Eaton (booth 2845) will showcase an expanded range of inverters and electrical balance of system (BOS) solutions for utility, commercial and OEM solar customers during Solar Power International. The Power Xpert Energy Optimizer controller is an energy storage and solar PV plant control system that simplifies control system configuration, is pre-engineered for device and system testing and is adaptable to changing energy storage and solar PV plant assets. Its Power Xpert solar inverters, which enable a skid-less inverter station design to reduce equipment requirements and installation costs.

Among the four new products ABB (booth 2345) is promoting at the show is its new PVS980, the company’s highest power central inverter to date. The PVS980 is a 1,500-VDC rated utility-scale solar inverter with a maximum power capacity of 2.2 MVA and a CEC efficiency of 98.5 percent. This inverter comes with a patented, self-contained, no-maintenance cooling system designed for demanding applications and harsh environments, cutting maintenance costs while ensuring outstanding endurance and reliability. Additionally, ABB’s TRIO-50.0 inverter combines many of the benefits of a central inverter into the enclosure of a string inverter. It offers the flexibility of horizontal as well as vertical mounting and can be installed in direct sunlight.

See the rest of our SPI coverage here.

— Solar Builder magazine