Urban Planning: Commercial rooftops are biggest void, opportunity in solar

Standard Solar

Solar projects have so much potential when viewed as a collective bundle, like this group of 30 rooftop arrays Standard Solar is installing for the Washington, D.C., Department of General Services that combine for a total of 7 MW (pictured here).

Commercial rooftops offer a ton of potential job opportunities for solar installers and developers going forward. Analysts at the Energy Department’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) estimate a technical potential of 1,118 GW of capacity and 1,432 TWh of annual energy generation, equivalent to 39 percent of the nation’s electricity sales.

This current estimate is significantly greater than that of a previous NREL analysis, which estimated 664 GW of installed capacity and 800 TWh of annual energy generation. Analysts attribute the new findings to increases in module power density, improved estimation of building suitability, higher estimates of the total number of buildings and improvements in PV performance simulation tools.

To calculate these estimates, NREL analysts used LiDAR data, Geographic Information System methods and PV-generation modeling to calculate the suitability of rooftops for hosting PV in 128 cities nationwide-representing approximately 23 percent of U.S. buildings-and provide PV-generation results for 47 of the cities. The analysts then extrapolated these findings to the entire continental United States. The result is more accurate estimates of technical potential at the national, state and ZIP code level.

How to use tracker control systems to your advantage

Within the 128 cities studied, the researchers found that 83 percent of small buildings have a suitable location for PV installation, but only 26 percent of those buildings’ total rooftop area is suitable for development. Because of the sheer number of this class of building across the country, however, small buildings actually provide the greatest combined technical potential. Altogether, small building rooftops could accommodate up to 731 GW of PV capacity and generate 926 TWh per year of PV energy — approximately 65 percent of the country’s total rooftop technical potential. Medium and large buildings have a total installed capacity potential of 386 GW and energy generation potential of 506 TWh per year, approximately 35 percent of the total technical potential of rooftop PV.

Key in this segment is the selection of the right mounting and racking system that makes your life easier, won’t damage the roof and is overall safe from wind and weather peril. Here’s a rundown of a few such systems and how they might save you time and cost.

System Profiles: Rooftop Ballast

Ecolibrium ballast project

Ecolibrium’s EcoFoot2+ Ballasted Flat-Roof Racking System

The EcoFoot2+ takes simplicity to a new level with integrated grounding and pre-assembled universal clamps. The modular design has just three main components: 1) A molded-resin base with no sharp edges and built-in drainage channels; 2) Pre-assembled clamps for integrated bonding without washers; 3) Corrosion-resistant wind deflectors that reduce ballast.

How does it save time and cost?

The installation speed is DNV-GL rated at 13.5 modules per installer hour. The feet can be tucked, minimizing the total footprint or allowing additional ballasting. Wire management is integrated. Bases nest to fit 50 kW per pallet, which saves on shipping.

  • Material: Black, ASA-PC, UL Listed Resin
  • Weight estimate: 3 to 7 psf
  • Slope: 0 to 7 degrees
  • Tilt angles: Landscape 10 degree; Portrait 5 degree
  • Attach option: Yes
  • Certifications: UL 2703; Class A Fire Rated; SEAOC, CFD compliant; Wind tunnel tested to 150 mph
  • Warranty: 25-year

Sollega

Sollega’s FastRack FR510

If you want the fewest parts possible, the FastRack510 (FR510) by Sollega might be the answer. It is a universal one-piece ballasted mounting system compatible with all framed modules. As with all Sollega mounting systems, the FR510 is lightweight and stackable, ships efficiently and is quick and easy to stage and install. FR510s are injection molded in California from Ultramid — an advanced glass reinforced nylon developed in partnership with BASF, the world leader in polymers. Ultramid is engineered to withstand extreme weather conditions and has a 25-year warranty. Sollega offers full engineering support services with every project, including layouts, ballast and optional anchor plans.

How does it save time and cost?

The FR510 arrives on site ready to install with no assembly required (500 kW fits in a 40-ft shipping container). All module attachments are top-down and require one size tool. Built-in reference tabs ease the alignment process. Sollega also says its system’s ability to attach rail internally provides for increased load sharing, and for hybrid systems, flexibility in mechanical anchor installation.

  • Material: BASF Ultramid glass reinforced nylon
  • Weight: 4.75 lbs
  • Slope: 0 to 7 degrees
  • Tilt angles: 5 and 10 degrees
  • Attach option: Yes
  • Certifications: UL 2703 Class A Type 1, 2 modules
  • Warranty: 25-year

Dynoraxx

Dynoraxx’s Evolution FR

The Evolution FR from Dynoraxx is designed to work with all framed modules on the market without any special ordering and requires no lead times. The system is made out of fiberglass, which provides remarkable strength-to-weight ratio that is pound for pound stronger than sheet metal, steel and aluminum and is about 70 percent the weight of aluminum on a density basis, according to Dynoraxx. Fiberglass is nonreactive with any roofing material and does not corrode or rust. Its lifespan is not affected by extreme temperature fluctuations, salty or humid air, sun, wind, acid rain and heavy snow. The use of fiberglass reinforced thermosetting resin builds structural strength directly into the Evolution. To improve part performance specific to the Evolution, the glass reinforcement is aligned along the stress points of the basket for added rigidity and support.

How does it save time and cost?

Part count is low and lightweight, which helps with shipping, and the lack of nuts or bolts means no tools are required for setup. The system comes with integrated DynoBond Grounding.

      • Material: UV-resistant fiberglass
      • Weight estimate: ~5 psf
      • Slope: 0 to 5 degree pitch
      • Tilt angles: Fixed 10-degree tilt
      • Attach option: Yes
      • Certifications: UL 2703
      • Warranty: 10-year

Kanzo

Kanzo’s K1250 Solar Racking

The Kanzo K1250 is made out of a high performance terpolymer, PC-XUV (Polycarbonate with Extreme Ultraviolet Stabilization), which has an excellent balance of UV stability and property retention. This material is designed for use in outdoor and high heat applications. It maintains an “F1” rating per UL 746C for outdoor suitability. In addition to these weatherability attributes, it has terrific impact resistance and rigidity. Kanzo says the material has a high level of chemical resistance compared to other styrenics.

How does it save time and cost?

The perfect 90 degree area allows you to measure your first row, and that’s it. The rest of the system will build out from there without measuring. The clamp provides integrated grounding and comes fully assembled, so there are no bolts or nuts or screws to worry about losing or putting together. The system is capable of 18.656-in., row-to-row spacing.

  • Material:  PC-XUV
  • Weight estimate: 3 to 7 psf
  • Slope: 0 to 7 degrees
  • Tilt angles: 12.5 degree
  • Attach option: Yes
  • Certifications: ASCE 7-10 and ASCE 7-05 Wind Tunnel Testing; ETL UL 467 Grounding and Bonding Equipment; ETL UL 2703; ANSI / ETL UL 1703 Class A Fire Rated with Type 1 modules.
  • Warranty: 15-year

 

 

— Solar Builder magazine

Wire management: What to look for when planning, purchasing your next solar system

Snake Tray's Cable Conveyance System

Snake Tray has developed a cable conveyance system that maintains a specific separation between cables that eliminates the need for upsizing cable gauges due to the derating cable because of bundling or piping.

Wires are good for two things: 1) Installing a kick-ass PV system 2) Tripping people up. To accomplish the first, you must avoid the second at all costs, which means implementing a sound wire management plan on projects of all sizes.

Planning

Just like the rest of the system, planning is important for both saving time and money. Tom Marsden and Vince Giglio from Heyco recommend laying out the cable routing on paper first before installing the solar cables. This will help you decide the best way to route the cables and what will be the most efficient use of cable mounting hardware.

Part of planning is of course purchasing, and knowing the most efficient ways to use what you’ve got.

“One way of saving time on installs would be to use stainless steel clips at the module level because you can install multiple clips in the same amount of time you can install a single zip tie, thus saving on labor costs,” says Vincent Marino, product manager for Nine Fasteners. “Also, when using micoinverters or optimizers connected to the panels, they can be applied prior to bringing the panel onto the roof.”

Nine Fasteners’ DCS-1307 Clip

Nine Fasteners’ DCS-1307 is its most popular clip. Constructed of stainless steel, it incorporates a rolled outer edge for maximum wire protection and is UL Certified. Its simplicity makes it cost competitive while still being manufactured in the United States.

Oh, and one trend to note while planning — pest management systems are starting to be required in rooftop installations, according to Marsden.

In a ground-mount, Roger Jette, president of Snake Tray, recommends keeping your power cables above ground when possible to remove the need to trench or thread cables through pipe.

“Besides being labor intensive, there is a potential of derating the current capacity of the cable,” Jette says. “With voltages now approaching 2,000 V, there is a high potential for problems if not enough attention is spent on the proper cable conveyance. Without a good cable conveyance plan, there is a potential for degradation of the cable insulation leading to arc failure.”

Let’s Get Wired: Five new wire management solutions to watch

We’ve heard plenty of horror stories from installers and manufacturers in regard to incorrect installation approaches or accidental errors, but the anecdotes that stand out most are those caused by wire management. Just seems silly to risk the performance of a $13,000 system by skimping out and choosing ties known to fail or clips known to dig into wires and cut them over time — the solar equivalent of losing a football game because of a missed extra point.

“Too many installers are sacrificing quality for costs. We have seen a number of installations

Heyco’s SunRunner Vidrio

Heyco’s latest clip, the SunRunner Vidrio, is intended for installation directly onto the solar module with compression force only. The SunRunner Vidrio is a stainless steel clip with a special TPE so it will not harm the glass surface and can accommodate glass panels from 0.13-in. to 0.25-in. thick.

where UV nylon cable ties are breaking, only to be replaced with more UV nylon cable ties,” Marsden says. “This scenario is no different than buying something for your home. Are you going to buy an appliance that needs to be replaced every two to three years or are you willing to spend a little more up front, knowing your product is backed by a warranty?” He points to stainless steel cable ties as a less risky solution.

Your other purchasing decisions dictate what wiring will need to be done as well, especially with those installing rail-less systems. The lack of a rail changes your wire management options.

“As a New Jersey installer, many jurisdictions require wiring inspections to verify that rails have been properly grounded,” says Chris Torre, installation manager at Green Sun Energy Systems, which has been using Quick Mount PV’s rail-free system, Quick Rack. “We’ve been able to eliminate the cost of the second truck roll to the site, saving an average of $300 to $400 per project. The system has integrated grounding pins located on the panel clamps, so the system can’t be grounded until the panels are installed. With this system, we’ve been able to install as many as 68 panels in a single day with a three-man crew.”

Chris Crowell is the managing editor of Solar Builder.

— Solar Builder magazine

How to use tracker control systems to your advantage

In the December 2016 Solar Builder, I discussed the industry evolution from passive to active and dynamic systems. Here’s a primer on control systems and how to make them work for your project.

The Basics

sunlink distributed tracker

Clients frequently ask how trackers will respond to a given condition. Your tracker manufacturer will have a Control Narrative that documents how the system behaves, but strategies include:

  • Excessive Wind. Trackers move to wind stow. Several manufacturers adopt a high-angle stow to mitigate torque. SunLink adopts a low angle stow and activates Dynamic Stabilization.
  • Snow. Trackers move to maximum tilt to shed snow. The higher the tilt, the more snow is shed. For example snow load is reduced by >80% at 60 degrees tilt.
  • Flood. Trackers move to flat to keep modules and wiring out of the water.
  • Obstructions. An abnormal rise in current triggers a fault that stops movement and prevents damage to the tracker.

Along the same lines, clients also ask how the control system works. It varies from system to system but generally there are several layers of communication and intelligence.

The fundamental tracker tilt behavior is governed by the tracker controller at each tracker. Data from individual trackers are sent through the communication network to the plant controller. The plant controller synthesizes data from the trackers and meteorological sensors and makes site-wide decisions about stow and manual control.

From there the data is sent to the local SCADA / DAS system or cloud for use in remote monitoring systems. SunLink’s VERTEX platform helps stakeholders track system performance by displaying critical data in a secure web app.

Impact on Economics

Given the significant role tracker control systems play in the operation of your project, be sure to take the time to discuss monitoring and control systems with your mounting system provider as part of your technology evaluation process.

This diligence is particularly helpful when it comes to commercial and small utility projects. Most developers in this segment opt to monitor performance with simple and relatively inexpensive energy meters. Energy data from the project or a portfolio of projects is accessed through a third-party data monitoring system. While that approach is fine when the system is operating well, it is insufficient for answering questions about why performance varies over time. Are the inverters underperforming? Has it been cloudy? Do trackers need service?

Spread the Wealth: We look at the value decentralized tracker systems bring to a project

A more sophisticated monitoring system could generate more granular data but would cost tens of thousands of dollars. And once implemented, the data is only as good as the insights and actionable information it generates. Too many small developers we talk to are frustrated by a sea of nuisance alarms generated by the data monitoring system and limited O&M resources to do anything about it. After all the effort to put in advanced data monitoring system, the data is ignored. For those reasons, most developers in this segment don’t use sophisticated systems.

Is there a middle ground? Leveraging the intelligence of the tracker system is one way. The same data needed to drive the intelligent control systems of active and dynamic tracker systems can complement energy measurements to answer questions about how the site is performing. Some companies are going a step further. SunLink’s VERTEX platform, for example, is designed to summarize the most important performance metrics and alerts.

Patrick KeelinThe Takeaway

Control systems and their ability to gather data and make it actionable play a pivotal role in ensuring tracker projects perform optimally over the long term. Particularly for the commercial and small utility segment, the ability to leverage real-time project intelligence collected by smarter mounting systems is essential in increasing the value of solar projects without increasing capital cost.

Patrick Keelin is Director of Product Management at SunLink.

— Solar Builder magazine

We look at the pros and cons of rail and rail-less PV mounting systems

Quick Mount PV’s E-Mount Lag

Photo: Quick Mount PV’s E-Mount Lag

Should you go with a rail or rail-less PV mounting system on your next installation? Depending on who you ask, you will get strong opinions for both. I liken the choice to dieting. Don’t eat meat! Actually, don’t eat carbs! No, it’s sugar that’s the killer! Milk is bad! You need milk!

The commonality here, at least to me, is everyone is right, and no one is right. What works for one person or project may not work for another, and maybe the answer is a little bit of all of the above. The real key is knowing what you need, what you prefer and the attributes of your available choices.

All systems have their pluses and minuses, and depending on the job at hand or your business plan, either could be the right solution for you and your customers. So, when, where and why would you go in one direction or another?

Reasons for Rails

For starters, it is easier to start. Rails involve a lower learning curve. You can get a crew trained on system installation fairly quick, and part of the reason for this is a more forgiving layout. SunModo, which offers all types of systems, says that on a straight-forward roof, your layout time is reduced.

“Our railed systems are flexible to accommodate complicated roof conditions and crooked roofs,” says Stella Sun, marketing director for SunModo. Its EZ Roof Mount can accommodate both rafter and decking applications.

The most ideal applications, according to Jason Xie, president at Magerack, is a large, simple array layout or a crooked roof. “A roof with a lot of obstacles — vents, stack, etc. — can present issues,” Xie says.

Look for low to moderately pitched roof applications in the 8 to 44 degrees range. Railed systems will require more engineering on steep slope pitched roof applications, 45 degrees or greater, according to SunModo.

“All rackless systems don’t use rails. That’s a time savings, but if the number of attachments is higher, if the parts costs are higher, or if there are still fiddly little parts that need adjustment, the overall costs are higher — not lower,” says Barry Cinnamon, founder of Spice Solar. “Installers should carefully account for all parts, including roof attachments.”

Some of the benefits aren’t inherent in the general rail system, but have been built in to select products. PV Racking, for example, has eliminated the need for clamps on the roof, which increases the speed of installation and save 20 to 30 percent in labor time. Its elongated L-Foot allows for faster and easier rail alignment too.

Reasons to Share

Shared rail solutions use rail to hold the modules in place, but reduce components elsewhere, such as mid and end clamps. As Shane Shamoo, president of Solar Speedrack, explains it, shared rail systems cover the entire side of the module, and the module frame becomes “bonded” to the rails and reduces the strain on the module.

“Because the rails are shared, a two-up installation would require only three rails as compared to four for a standard mid and end clamp system,” he says. This provides its own unique nimbleness for either landscape or portrait installations on all roof types. Shared rail also requires fewer roof penetrations, lessening the potential of a “floating” penetration.

SunModo says shared rail is great when modules are in landscape and the rail has to be run E-W and you cannot clamp to the short sides of the module, or when the rail has to be run N-S and the module must be in portrait. Less than ideal shared rail applications would be those with sagging trusses, uneven shingles, uneven roof framing or any other situation that would cause difficulty creating perfectly level rows of rail.

“Since we offer a shared rail system that does not require clamps, the first rail automatically aligns the first row of panels, which eliminates the need to straighten panels and speeds up the installation,” says Devin Paris of PV Racking’s shared rail system. Some systems come with rail spacers to allow for fast and easy spacing between the rails, eliminating the need to pull a measurement between each rail.

Reasons for Rail-less

As you might expect, the benefits of a rail-less solution come from not having rails. I know, I really blew the cover off that one, but it’s worth understanding those benefits: Rail-less products are compact, easy to handle and cheaper to ship.

“A rail-less system provides the suppliers the opportunity to cut manufacturing and shipping costs, and the installers are limiting time on the roof with fewer components to handle and install,” SunModo noted.
Milton Nogueira, business development manager with Roof Tech, notes that it is easier to handle any increments of PV modules, which also opens up more possibilities such as any pitched roof top with asphalt roofing, roofs with less space or roofs with lots of obstacles.

Rail-less mounting can be much quicker, but installers must know what they are doing as there can be a steeper learning curve.

Rail-less is also good for mounting in landscape, but less ideal for portrait orientation, says SunModo. Xie recommends avoiding rail-less on crooked roofs, higher wind areas and tile roofs. Nogueira says he would avoid discrepant roof surfaces with variations over 1 in. You’ll always want to consider the extra attachment points you are adding — the more attachment points, the lower the point load and the less impact on the attachment due to thermal contraction and expansion.

 

System Profiles: Residential Rooftop

SunModo Sundock Rail-free anchor system

SunModo Sundock Rail-free anchor systemThe SUNDOCK Rail-free system offers universal end and mid clamps, which reduce inventory, and allows for snapping in the downslope panel edge as installers work their way up the roof. This means no more reaching over modules to tighten the mid clamps. Finally, the system offers post-module assembly leveling for height adjustments after the modules are installed.

  • Material: Aluminum and stainless steel
  • Flashing included? Yes
  • Certifications: UL 2703 (Pending)
  • Warranty: 20-year

Roof Tech’s E Mount AIR (Gen II)

Roof Tech’s E Mount AIR (Gen II)The E Mount AIR Gen II, has improved features from its predecessor such as IBC 2015 and IRC 2015 compliance, increased warranty terms, fewer parts count, preassembled clamp kit, higher level of adjustability, PE stamped letters and an integrated flashing system. They are fastened with wood screws for direct deck attachment. Roof Tech systems are 100 percent weatherproof certified by the International Code Council Evaluation Services for durability and water resistance and can be installed in about half the time when compared to a conventional lag/rail system, according to the company.

  • Material: Anodized aluminum
  • Flashing included? Yes
  • Certifications: UL 2703, ASTM 2140, ICC ESR-3575
  • Warranty: 20-year

PV Racking’s PV Stealth

PV Racking’s PV StealthPV Stealth is designed with ease and flexibility in mind. Its “clamp-free” design allows for a faster installation of panels, fewer parts and vertical and horizontal adjustability. The big pitch from PV Racking is to remove clamps from the equation and simply lay your panels into place.

  • Material: 6000 series aluminum
  • Flashing included? Optional
  • Certifications: CSA UL 2703
  • Warranty: 15-year

Everest’s CrossRail Shared Rail System

Everest’s CrossRail Shared Rail SystemCrossRail Shared Rail uses fewer rail resulting in fewer roof attachments. This means you can save money on labor, material and reduce time on the roof. To simplify installation, its Slider Kit provides North-South adjustability for easy module alignment. In addition, its structural Rail Connectors allows for safe and quick preassembly of rails on the ground. As an integrated grounding system, CrossRail Shared Rail only requires one lug per sub-array.

  • Material: Aluminum, stainlesssteel hardware
  • Flashing included? With EverFlash Kits
  • Certifications: UL listed
  • Warranty: 12-year

Solar Speedrack’s HRS160 Hybrid Racking System

Solar Speedrack’s HRS160 Hybrid Racking System The HRS160 Hybrid Racking design allows the installer to mount the rails in standard or shared rail configurations. This paired with its Solar SpeedFoot, a non-penetrating solar roof mount, yields increased savings on solar installations. The Solar SpeedRack focus is fewer roof penetrations and reduced components for faster install times.

  • Material: Various materials
  • Flashing included? Optional
  • Certifications: UL 2703, UL 1703, PE Certified
  • Warranty: 20-year limited

MageMount Rail-less Solar Mounting System

MageMount Rail-less Solar Mounting SystemThis system has separate components for module connections and roof attachments. The roof attachment solutions cover all roof types including composition shingle roof, tile roof, stone-coated steel tile roof, etc. All mounting components, including roof attachments, are self-bonded and grounded with one grounding lug. The system is flexible, making it easy to adjust the roof attachments’ lateral position and module height.

  • Material: Aluminum alloy, stainless steel
  • Flashing included? Yes
  • Certifications: UL 2703 and Class A Fire Rating
  • Warranty: 25-year limited

— Solar Builder magazine

Mounting Pressure: Today’s large-scale PV boom demands new levels of service from racking companies

Solar FlexRack

For the first time ever, in 2016, U.S. solar ranked as the No. 1 source of new electric generating capacity additions on an annual basis. In total, solar accounted for 39 percent of new capacity additions across all fuel types, and these big numbers are coming via big installs as the utility-scale segment grew 145 percent from 2015.

“In a banner year for U.S. solar, a record 22 states each added more than 100 MW,” says Cory Honeyman, GTM Research’s associate director of U.S. solar research. “While U.S. solar grew across all segments, what stands out is the double-digit gigawatt boom in utility-scale solar, primarily due to solar’s cost competitiveness with natural gas alternatives.”

The trend shows no signs of reversing, and as utility-scale solar projects continue to boom, the industry demand for material and logistical services will keep increasing pressure on suppliers like never before.

Raw materials bottleneck

“It’s a simple matter of supply and demand,” says Chuck Galbreath, VP of supply chain at SunLink. “If I have more time, I can find more options and drive down costs. When schedules are compressed and I’m forced into a tight delivery window, I have to go with the supplier who is able to deliver in the time allotted, which allows less room for negotiation.”

Others agree: “We often encounter requests for expedited finished product that can be more aggressive than the lead times from the steel mills. For our proprietary racking systems, OMCO is now maintaining a responsible level of steel inventory to support these instances,” states Todd Owen, General Manager of OMCO Solar.

The time pinch has led to more in-house manufacturing. “The top five racking manufacturers have reached economies of scale where additional volume no longer decreases price, forcing manufacturers to vertically integrate by producing more parts and material in-house,” says Paul Benvie, VP of engineering at TerraSmart.

Because the sector is so dependent upon the steel market, finished product pricing can be volatile. The recent anti-dumping lawsuits spurred market increases that were felt in all steel industries, including solar. Benvie says TerraSmart has countered the pricing roller coaster by making strategic hedge buys and leaning on suppliers to honor and hold pricing so they are capable of manufacturing product at a reliable price point.

To help combat delivery delays, more mounting companies also are establishing regional centers. “Steel delivered to and from opposite coasts can have a significant impact on costs and schedules,” Benvie says. “Strategic manufacturers have set up facilities that are centrally located and/or have different branches at opposite ends of the country. For example, TerraSmart has opened a new manufacturing facility in Columbus, Ohio, and can manufacture identical parts out of the Southeast, Southwest and New England.”

RELATED: We look at the value decentralized tracker systems bring to a project 

Timelines keep shrinking

“As the solar industry matures and adopts the more typical rigid large-scale construction approach to project schedules, timelines have been compressed and suppliers are now expected to adhere to strict, tight daily schedules,” says Nick Troia, VP of corporate quality and project management at SunLink. “It is a more professional atmosphere that in some cases is straining the less sophisticated suppliers.”

The compression is substantial: “We ask customers for a 12-week lead time, but in this market we are lucky if we get eight,” says Larry Reeves, a project manager for Array Technologies Inc. (ATI). “Schedules are crazy now.”

Seasonal variations also intensify weather constraints. “The solar industry is challenging, as many financiers, developers and EPCs push to close projects out in Q4,” Benvie says. “In New England, this can be increasingly challenging with projects kicking off as the daylight hours get shorter, temperatures drop and field conditions deteriorate.”

“Without getting into the dollars and cents, delays can be very costly, such as the triggering of liquidated damages that could accumulate at thousands of dollars per day or by hindering project completion for a tax credit deadline,” observes Troia.

Losses can be the cost of customer maintenance, too. In some of these unavoidable situations, someone involved in the project has to recognize and proactively eliminate a delay before it happens.

“We believe we are truly partners with our clients, so we commonly shoulder costs or increase productivity to minimize the sting of a delay, regardless of who caused it,” Benvie says.

Next, we look at the turnkey services and systems designed for saving time on project development.

— Solar Builder magazine