Ask an Expert: Inverter manufacturers give us their best troubleshooting advice

Christopher Barrett

Christopher Barrett

Wi-Fi Can Cause Communication Issues

Christopher Barrett, director of technical services, APsystems

We often see issues our installers are facing related to communication, often due to misplacement of the gateway or an unreliable internet connection. Following best practices recommended by the manufacturer will help installers reduce repeat site visits to fix communication problems. Some of these best practices include installing a gateway in the correct location, which is typically a direct connection to the service panel in which the PV array home-run is landed (often a dedicated PV sub-panel). We also recommend using a wired ethernet connection whenever possible to better ensure reliable communication and minimize returns to the jobsite.

Ryan LeBlanc

Ryan LeBlanc

Double-check those Airways, String Lengths

Ryan LeBlanc, senior applications engineer, SMA America

  1. Over-voltage, strings that are too long, are the fastest way to kill an electrical device.
  2. Blocking airways, installing inverters too close to walls or other inverters, and not inspecting inverters regularly for a blocked air intake are both common. This results in less production, but it’s hard to say if it kills them earlier.
Frank O’Young

Frank O’Young

Pro Tip: Try Different Cable Colors

Frank O’Young, associate VP, Darfon

Our tech team sees that often the polarities of the DC lines from a PV module or string are incorrectly connected to the inverter due to the fact that same color cables (mostly black) are used for the + and – of the module or string. This can be avoided by using different cable colors for different polarities or checking the polarities before inverter connection. Our tech team also sees of that the L1 and L2 lines of the AC circuit are incorrectly wired when tying the inverter to the grid. Caution should be taken when connecting the L1 and L2 and instructions from the inverter manual should be followed.

RELATED: 2017 Solar Inverter Buyer’s Guide 

Mark Cerasuolo

Mark Cerasuolo

Storage is Complex – Get Trained to do it Right

Mark Cerasuolo, director of training and marketing, OutBack Power

Since our products and systems typically either include or interact with batteries, some training beyond what most grid-tie installers have is really necessary to ensure a safe and reliable installation. Even then, we really encourage installers to use pre-wired systems to ensure that the system is complete and wired correctly.

Ed Heacox

Ed Heacox

Top 4 inverter installation issues from CPS

Ed Heacox, GM, CPS Americas

  • “Grid V Out of Limit.” This is when the customer forgot to check that AC switch is on, so the inverter thinks the AC grid voltage is out of limit.
  • String mis-match. An inconsistent number of panels per string on one MPPT.
  • Exceeding DC/AC ratio recommendations. This can lead to occasional intermittent faulting.
  • Installing the DC string from left to right when it would be more ideal to balance the load across two MPPTs. This can lead to one MPPT too far out of balance from other MPPTs (e.g. four strings in No. 1 and one string into No. 2).
Peter Mathews

Peter Mathews

Watch your Connections, System Design

Peter Mathews, North American general manager, SolarEdge

Two very common errors are the improper mating of the connectors or reverse polarity. Other items that relate to the connectors include leaving connectors open during the installation process, which can lead to water penetration, or not fully crimping the wires. Another area in which we see support issues arise is in system design. For example, SolarEdge enables the installation of longer strings, so installers who are used to standard design constraints may out of habit design short strings instead of the 11.25-kWp strings that are available with the SolarEdge solution.

Brian Lydic

Brian Lydic

Inverter Integrity Starts with a Correct Installation

Brian Lydic, senior standards and technology engineer, Fronius USA

The most common installation oversights we see are related to torqueing, inverter location and moisture management. The mounting bracket must be installed on a surface to ensure there is no bowing or warping of the bracket. The wiring compartment must be wired as per guidelines to ensure a flush mating of the inverter body to the mounting bracket chassis. If wire routing or conduit fittings are not considered, there may be a loss of integrity in this seal. Pay special attention to the DATCOM cover. Make sure it “clicks” or “snaps” in place before screws secure it. If the cover is simply screwed in, there may be bowing and slight gaps between the inverter body and DATCOM cover, allowing water ingress.

— Solar Builder magazine

Get hands-on with OutBack Power Technologies at one of these roadshow stops

OutBack Power Technologies is going to be hitting the road with its Energy Express van this spring to showcase several of its energy solutions to help solar installers grow their businesses. Its first stop was this week at the 2017 NABCEP (North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners) Continuing Education Conference.

Included in the showcase will be OutBack Power’s ProHarvest line and the ICS Plus. All of the equipment on display is designed for energy reliability and compliance, providing business owners, residents and installers with resilient platforms that adhere to the latest regulatory requirements.

Outback Power inverters

Details on ICS Plus and ProHarvest

The ICS Plus is the brand’s integrated combiner solution, which provides arc-fault protection, advanced ground-fault protection and rapid shutdown. With the ICS Plus solution, OutBack Power says it is the only manufacturer with a UL1741-RSS-listed system from rooftop down to energy storage, helping installers meet current NEC 2014 and 2017 requirements.

The ProHarvest products are specially designed for rugged 3-phase commercial installations, expanding professionals’ opportunities across residential and commercial applications.

“With the drastic economy and policy changes the energy industry is experiencing, solar professionals need to stay at the forefront of energy storage implementation, installation regulations and other compliance issues,” said Paul Daley, director of product management at OutBack Power. “Our team has championed continuing education for energy pros, from classroom training, sessions at shows like NABCEP, and now on the road with the Energy Express vehicle, ensuring installers and their customers know about every new opportunity to grow.”

Upcoming Energy Express dates and locations

Locations (subject to change):
March 20-24
Texas (NABCEP Conference in Dallas)

March 27-31
Northern Arizona and Southern California

April 3-7
Southern California

April 10-14
Bay Area and Northern California

April 17 and beyond: New dates and locations to come

— Solar Builder magazine

Inverter experts explain how to best calculate levelized cost of energy

APsystems

Photo courtesy of APsystems.

Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is one of the most important metrics used for judging the value of a PV system. It is also less easily understood and seemingly open to interpretation. How am I really calculating this figure? What is sitting outside this calculation?

Ask five inverter companies, and you might get five answers. So, we asked them all to get all of the answers.

Factor for Failure

A recurring theme when calculating LCOE for a PV system is getting a full understanding of its potential for failure and its ability to mitigate those losses: How many components are there? How likely are they to fail? When and how often could they fail? How much production will be lost during those failures? How much work is involved in getting it running again? This means keeping in mind variables like inverter replacement cost, system engineering cost, interconnection updates (adoption of new codes) and re-inspection cost.

Fronius Diagram

Fig. 1: Courtesy of Fronius USA.

Fronius did a study, examining the costs associated with replacing or repairing inverters 15 to 20 years from the present to account for that full PV system cost of ownership. An example they gave: If the original system cost is $10,000 and the extended cost factor is 1.10, then the total cost of the system over its lifetime is $10,000 x 1.10 = $11,000. Within this study, its SnapInverter resulted in 1.05 cost factor, while a generic string inverter hit 1.19 and a microinverter hit 1.26. The important variable in this calculation was mean time between failure (MTBF), defined in this study as the failure rate during the intrinsic failure period (see Fig. 1).

“Since the industry has grown so rapidly in recent years, the majority of PV systems in the United States are less than five years old, with typical standard inverter warranties being five to 10 years in length,” says Brian Lydic, senior standards and technology engineer at Fronius. “The majority of inverters installed in the field are still under warranty, and the industry has not needed to address large numbers of inverter replacements or repairs due to end of lifetime, though this will become commonplace.”

Yaskawa – Solectria Solar notes the correlation between the number of components and a higher MTBF, which makes sense intuitively. This makes the MTBF discussion a big part of the operations and maintenance (O&M) and LCOE calculation.

“The capability to service your inverter efficiently and in the most effective manner is crucial to keeping uptime high and calculating LCOE,” says Danielle Kershner, channel sales representative, Yaskawa – Solectria Solar, which keeps component count low by integrating AC/DC disconnects and integrates modular power stages to minimizes time and cost for service. The company has also revamped its customer service department to reduce downtime.

Another way to look at this is operational expenditure (Opex). The question answered here is “How much value am I losing during downtime?” So, Opex would include equipment failure, maintenance, repairs, materials and labor lead-time, restructuring, capacity change and so on. This analysis can favor microinverters in certain applications as any failures will only affect small portions of a system in a single moment, versus the entire system in the case of a string inverter failure. As mentioned in our feature on service on page 20, web-based monitoring services can be crucial for improving timeliness and efficiency of O&M functions.

“Since downtime is tied to the loss of generation, this variable must not be taken lightly when trying to maximize the LCOE,” says Frank O’Young, associate VP for Darfon. “The LCOE may be lowered by as much as 20 percent if the system uses equipment that is easy to maintain, quick to troubleshoot and requires minimal repair time.”

Look at Lifetime

Establishing all of the variables that add and subtract from the economic value of a PV system is step one. Establishing a timeframe is step two. Is your LCOE calculation really looking at the broad picture?

“When you compare two systems with a calculated LCOE, be sure the warranties are equivalent because the cost to replace a major component like a string inverter can have a serious impact on that calculation, particularly when those needed replacements occur once, or often twice within a 25-year period,” says Jason Higginson, senior director of marketing, APsystems, which has 10- and 25-year warranty options for its microinverters.

Adjacent to the warranty is service recovery speed. Ed Heacox, GM of CPS America, a leading commercial inverter company, says a key for them is having ready-to-go spares or RMA inverters available. “We are offering service speed commitments as well as onsite spares to help customers reach nearly zero downtime. Innovation of these commercial programs is a big part of our work on LCOE for customers,” he says.

Pika Energy Diagram

Example of “future-proofing” an install with a Pika Energy inverter.

Max Efficiency

Enough of all of this failure talk. Most of the time the system is going to be on and working, and when it is, it needs to be kicking ass and improving LCOE.

“One of the potential drawbacks is that LCOE calculations do not effectively differentiate between upfront and variable costs,” says Peter Mathews, North American general manager for SolarEdge.

His example: The fixed cost of a system, including customer acquisition, permitting and design, are realized regardless of the size of the PV system. Each added module can be installed for a much smaller variable cost.

“The trade-off between fixed and variable costs is more advantageous for systems with more PV modules since they can generate a disproportionately greater amount of energy versus the initial upfront costs,” he says. “LCOE calculations are therefore only part of the financial return. The calculation for return on investment (ROI) should also factor in the revenue generating potential of any site to generate cash from the PV system. The LCOE only calculates the expense. The returns can also vary based on region, rate structure or the ability to switch rate structures. Having a highly flexible PV solution that can add more modules onto projects is a powerful tool in maximizing the return on PV projects.

SolarEdge’s philosophy is to allow for the installation of modules in shaded areas and on roofs with varying angles. This degree of design flexibility means more modules per roof.

Marv Dargatz with HiQ Solar recommends stacking string powers high enough to maximize ROI while the system is up and humming. To do this right, he cautions to be wary of STC ratings.

“STC ratings for modules tend to be optimistic, partly because they are measured with a cell temperature of 25° C. In the real world, cell temperatures in direct sunlight are more likely to be at 60 or 70° C, yielding less power,” he says. “Overall, when orientation to the sun, temperature, time of year, soiling and aging are taken into account, strings put out a lot less power than STC leads you to expect. It’s therefore important to stack the inverter to make sure it is operating as near to its max output as possible to maximize ROI.”

He also says having a single MPPT per string rather than paralleling helps maximize harvest.

RELATED: How to achieve low LCOE utility-scale solar without cutting costs 

Seriously, Really Look at Lifetime

Pinpointing the lifetime of a system at 25 years from 2017 puts you into 2042. We did the math three times just because that number looks insane. We might all be in an Escape from New York post-apocalyptic future, but those PV systems will still be kicking, and one has to assume energy storage is going to be in a completely different position than it is now. And assuming that, you must assume your customers are going to want to move to upgrade to solar+storage, if they haven’t already, which throws all of your previous LCOE forecasting out the window of your 2042 flying car.

So yes, understanding cost and performance metrics for batteries is an important factor to consider today. Batteries introduce multiple new variables into the financial model and can have a positive or negative impact on LCOE depending on the technology used and how it is sized relative to the PV array and loads.

“A battery has both an instantaneous power rating [in watts or kilowatts] and an energy capacity rating [in kilowatt-hours] and they both factor into the financial model,” says Paul Dailey, director of product management, OutBack Power. “In addition, battery life is often expressed either in cycles or calendar life, but you need both metrics to determine the value of the battery in your application over time.”

The future of energy storage is why Chip Means, director of sales development, Pika Energy, says DC voltage is by far the most underrated and under-appreciated variable in LCOE.

“Too many solar inverter products use a low voltage range, typically 48 volts. Solar is rapidly changing to require the addition of battery storage behind the meter. Using 48-volt equipment simply doesn’t make sense for this evolving reality,” he says. “Low-voltage inverters are typically AC-coupled to add a battery to grid-tied solar, which requires using two inverters. This clunky, 48-volt arrangement means the customer’s roundtrip efficiency will be typically around 80 percent.”

Pika Energy’s products use an internal bus voltage of nominally 380 Vdc, and all of its components — PV Link solar optimizers, Islanding Inverters and Pika-compatible smart batteries — use this bus voltage to connect, communicate and transmit power. This results in a system with roundtrip efficiency of closer to 90-92 percent. That 12 percent increase on roundtrip efficiency pays major dividends in terms of LCOE.

Magnum Energy’s MicroGT inverter also comes ready to talk to the MS-PAE inverter/charger, to ease that solar-plus-storage transition.

“Installing storage-ready PV systems now will save significant time and resources when returning in the near future to add energy storage,” says Mike Dixon, sales and marketing director, Magnum Energy. “Not only considering current equipment investments, but future equipment investment — which doesn’t fall under the O&M umbrella — can save on the most expensive part of the solar formula.”

Unless all of these lifetime costs and realistic max output calculations are included and explained clearly to customers, a backlash will occur once they are surprised by replacement costs or any other unforeseen variable. And no one wants a line of customers wielding lightsabers outside their door in 2042, demanding satisfaction. 

This feature is from our March/April “Inverter Issue.” Get your FREE subscription to print here or digital versions here.

— Solar Builder magazine

Energy storage is now a priority in Massachusetts — so attend this free class on storage systems from OutBack Power

Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker signed house bill 4568 in August that allows users to store and discharge energy as needed instead of purchasing or generating more expensive energy during times of peak demand. To help locals prep for this diverse new energy world, OutBack Power Technologies is teaming up with altE Store, a solar electric distributor and reseller in Boxborough, Mass., to provide a class on Oct. 11 to educate installers about energy storage technologies and systems.

Also, OutBack is hosting a Solar Builder webinar on Nov. 2: “Rooftop to Battery: the case for convenience and safety when designing Solar+Storage.” Sign up here.

Outback Power invertersThis comprehensive energy bill follows the example of California and Oregon in setting energy storage targets to enhance the value of renewable electricity generation. The Massachusetts law also defines the role of utilities with energy storage. As explained by Judith Judson, commissioner for the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources upon the bill’s signing into law, “[E]nergy storage technology has the potential to be a game changer for the Massachusetts energy market, further cementing our place as a national clean energy leader. By pairing renewable energy resources with energy storage technology, this legislation will allow the Commonwealth to lower energy costs for ratepayers, shave our peak demand energy usage, and reduce our state’s carbon emissions.”

To make that potential a reality, altE Store in Boxborough, Mass. and off-grid industry leader OutBack Power will offer a free class on home energy storage for both solar professionals as well as interested home and small business owners. “Get Ready for the Future of Energy Storage Technology in Massachusetts” will cover all the essentials, including:

  • Battery technologies
  • Introduction to battery-based PV systems—How are they different?
  • Sizing and selecting the right system for the application—what you need to know
  • Questions, answers and next steps

This free class will take place on Oct. 11, from 9:00 a.m. to Noon at the Holiday Inn, 242 Adams Place, Boxborough, Mass. 01719. Those interested can sign up online here.

“With the new storage-friendly legislation signed in the state, we’re looking forward to working with altE Store in bringing the solution to homeowners and installers,” said Mark Cerasuolo, director of training and marketing for OutBack. “With behind-the-meter storage, they can self-consume all the solar electricity they can produce to offset their utility costs, day and night, as well as power through protracted outages and emergencies. Energy storage’s time has come in Massachusetts—which is why we’re coming there in early October to help altE Store spread the word.”

— Solar Builder magazine

Rooftop to Battery: the case for convenience and safety when designing Solar+Storage

Outback Power invertersSolar+Storage is expected to become an over $3 billion market by 2020, and following the example in Germany storage-based systems will account for 4 out of every 10 installations. This, plus NEC-driven changes for rooftop installations means there’s new requirements along with new opportunities.

OutBack Power Technologies, the “master of the off-grid,” will present solutions for applying technologies proven in that demanding field into residential and light commercial installations coming up, for next-generation PV/solar systems combining off-grid independence with grid-tied convenience and economics.

READ MORE AND REGISTER HERE

— Solar Builder magazine