Demand charge management tips for the commercial, industrial segment

Simpliphi commercial solar storage installation

Storage solutions must be customized to align with the specific power or energy demands of a commercial or industrial customer.

It’s no secret that commercial energy users in every industry are seeking to reduce energy costs today and achieve long-term cost predictability for the future as utilities implement increasingly unfavorable rate structures. Energy storage provides a powerful, multifaceted solution to lock in rates and achieve power security.

Savings opportunities

Energy storage can provide a significant ROI when it comes to utility bill savings:

Demand charges: Demand charges are often calculated based on the highest 15-minute average electrical use recorded in one month which are then applied to all 12 months. As a result, demand charges make up a significant percentage of all commercial and industrial utility bills — typically between 30 and 70 percent. In the U.S., 25 percent of commercial customers (roughly five million businesses) pay demand charge rates of more than $15/kWh and these demand charges continue to rise. Energy storage enables commercial and industrial customers to discharge their batteries and use battery-stored energy rather than grid power to avoid peak demand spikes.

Time of use rates: Time of use rates are calculated at a specific time of day when the utility charges a premium rate to reduce high demand on the grid. Energy storage offsets utility rates by reducing grid power usage during peak hours and shifting usage from peak to non-peak hours.

Large-scale battery banks have both sufficient available power and energy storage to cover and “smooth out” consumption demands and protect utility customers from unfavorable rate structures.

How performance factors into the equation

Beyond initial utility savings, the performance profile of both the batteries and all-in-one solutions matters when it comes to maximizing the performance and economic return associated with a commercial energy storage system. As we’ve discussed in earlier posts, pay close attention to warrantied cycles (battery expected life), max charge/discharge or the battery’s available power, as well as usable capacity and efficiency.

Just as PV array size decisions are important for generating the optimal amount of power and ROI for a project, so too must storage solutions be customized to align with the specific power or energy demands of a commercial or industrial customer.

Consider how storage addresses peak demand charges.  These charges are based upon power consumption, so it is important to have a skilled professional build a profile of power demands exceeding the line in which the demand charge is met.

For instance, a professional might determine that the highest 15 minute interval rate that a warehouse uses is 100 kW. The installer can then reduce this rate with the strategic addition of solar and storage to help smooth out the load profile that the utility sees and thus reduce costly demand charges.

There are high voltage energy storage systems available that allow you to customize exactly the voltage, peak power, capacity and system size you need for every building, location and use-case in your portfolio. This approach can provide significant cost savings over out-of-the box solutions, requiring you to buy only the storage you need and allowing you to add on additional storage incrementally down the road.

This post and the entire 12 Days of Storage was contributed by SimpliPhi.

— Solar Builder magazine

Temperature considerations in battery selection

remote site simpliphi battery installation

As is true with solar projects, the range of environments in which energy storage is being applied has grown and diversified significantly. This diversification in deployments means a deeper understanding of the temperature-related performance and safety issues tied to battery selection and storage system design.

For solar installers, understanding which battery chemistries and energy storage solutions offer the most environmental flexibility in terms of project suitability is an important advantage in the ability to successfully deploy more storage in more locations in the United States and around the world.

Market shifts

Driven by both typical indoor space constraints (in both residential and commercial properties) as well as the frequent desire to co-locate storage and solar, more customers are seeking outdoor storage solutions.

In addition, the popularity of solar+storage and microgrid solutions is growing exponentially in industries such as agriculture, the military, medical care and disaster-related resiliency and recovery. Within these sectors, whether it be farms in Central California, military bases in the Middle East, or hurricane zones in the Caribbean and Florida, outdoor installations in hot climates are the rule, not the exception.

Temperature considerations by chemistry

Lead Acid

Lead acid batteries often have a fairly narrow temperature window and cannot function or offer long life cycles in cold or hot weather. For example, in equatorial climates lead acid batteries require replacement approximately every five years. These batteries also tend to have a storage capacity rated at 75℉ and the rated usable capacity can vary greatly when operating beyond this ideal temperature window.

Remember: Battery warranties often require operating within certain temperature parameters

Lithium-ion with cobalt

Lithium-ion batteries that contain cobalt — including NMC, LMO, NCA and LCO — require that the ambient temperature surrounding the batteries fall within a narrow window to protect the battery’s performance and warranty, with an upper limit of ~75℉. Maintaining this temperature requires expensive thermal monitoring and cooling equipment. Not only do the ancillary equipment costs negatively impact installation economics, these systems also introduce points of failure, including the risk of thermal runaway that can lead to overheating and fires.

Lithium-iron phosphate

Lithium-iron phosphate (also known as lithium ferrous phosphate or LFP) batteries generate very little heat during cycling, have no risk of thermal runaway and therefore do not require ventilation or cooling. In fact, some LFP batteries are warrantied to operate safely in environments up to 140°F without any ancillary temperature monitoring or maintenance equipment. These batteries often do not see efficiency or rating fluctuations when operating at low or high temperatures.

Enclosures

When it comes to outdoor battery banks, it is not only essential that the batteries are able to perform safely in a wide temperature range, but also that the containers and cabinets are able to withstand a wide range of environments. In the United States, this means looking for solutions that offer an outdoor enclosure with a rating of NEMA 3R or higher.

This post and the entire 12 Days of Storage was contributed by SimpliPhi.

— Solar Builder magazine

Six solar industry storylines to watch from Solar Power International 2018

Q Cells

Photo of a cool booth setup.

Your Solar Builder editor entered the whirlwind of news, numbers and handshaking that is Solar Power International and emerged with a notepad filled with gibberish. What language is this? What secrets does it hold? We sent it to a forensics lab, the archaeological department at Oxford and the guy with wild hair on Ancient Aliens for their interpretations. After this thorough analysis, we believe these are the top solar story lines in a post-SPI world …

1. Focus shifts from federal politics to local action

You get the sense that the solar industry has finally punted on trying to waste much more time inching the message boulder up the current administration’s hill and is now putting those resources into local efforts. This is likely the better route to go anyway, and the initiatives announced at SPI could do the trick if developed.

Just before SPI kicked off, the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and The Solar Foundation unveiled the Solar Automated Permit Processing (SolarAPP) initiative, which is the latest collective effort of the industry to streamline permitting. Reforms include: A safety and skills training and certification program that allows residential and small commercial solar and battery storage installers to attest that their projects are compliant with applicable codes, to eliminate traditional multi-step permitting processes; a standardized online platform provided to local governments at no cost, a list of established equipment standards and/or certified equipment for solar and storage projects installed through the proposed process and more.

There have been several attempts at this over the years, all of which fell short, but this one might have a shot because of the timing. The economic case for solar has never been better, and the technology and techniques are proven with copious examples to highlight.

Also, what local government would turn down the promise of a ton more jobs? To grow that base of skilled solar workers around the country, the Solar Training Network introduced AmericanSolarWorkforce.org, an online platform to help solar companies recruit qualified candidates; allow solar job seekers to find career and training opportunities; and help the entire industry build a strong and diverse solar workforce. Using this platform, which is free of charge, employers can post opportunities on a solar job board and connect with thousands of candidates looking for solar career opportunities. Employers can also create company profiles, review candidate applications, and communicate with potential hires.

2. Solar pros see the short-comings of the industry and are actively trying to address them.

Two key examples here. First is in grid services. Features for grid services are mentioned all of the time now, from inverter and optimizer products to the need for storage and other ancillary services. I take it as a sign that the relationship between utilities and solar companies is now evolving past an adversarial stage because there’s nothing left to prove about solar as viable generating asset. Now, solar has to prove how it will best integrate and play nice on a wide scale over the long-term. This was always the case, but it feels everyone is getting on the same page about pursuing solutions.

For example, of all the things bouncing around the mind of CJ Colavito, VP of Engineering at Standard Solar, these days, he most wants to find a way to sync third-party radar forecasts with smart inverters for advanced ramp rate control — to ramp down voltage slowly prior to cloud cover that will cause voltage flicker.

Solar Power International

SEIA CEO Abigail Ross Hopper and SEPA CEO Julia Hamm discuss diversity as an important goal for their respective industries.

The second short-coming is a short-coming for most industries: diversity. Judging by comments during the opening session and the upcoming Solar Jobs Census, solar thought leaders realize the industry is in position to not just remake the grid, but the makeup of the American workforce – not just to be PC and nice but because there is value inherent in a diversified workforce with growth opportunities. Also, check out this initiative from SEIA to work with Historically Black Colleges.

3. The full solar life cycle needs more attention.

One area in the U.S. solar industry still in need of attention is the full sustainability of a solar project. For example, panel recycling is a fairly big can that keeps getting kicked down the road. A DNV GL report released at SPI listed stranded assets as a key question in its market mechanics. At some point we will run out of road and kick that can straight into a million tons of PV that needs to be put somewhere. This isn’t a crisis (at least not yet) because there are solutions, at least according to First Solar, which has developed a standard for doing so and been put its system in place. Solar is recycled fairly easily — and for a profit — in Europe and that model could be replicated here.

The next can soon to be kicked is in storage. Storage is basically the key to solar taking over the world, but storage is dirtier than solar on the clean energy scale. Cobalt is a safety hazard. Lithium needs to be mined and poses its own potential for fire. Lead-acid battery companies claim to have the most recyclable solution, but does it perform as well as the future needs? And also, it is comprised of lead and acid. This is stuff that needs to be fully considered within the grand plans.

4. So many storage solutions…

LG energy storage

The new LG energy storage system.

Speaking of storage, every turn on the trade show floor seemed to present a new energy storage system or bundle of products to solve all sorts of solar + storage equations, from simpler backup capabilities to time of use to peak shaving and on and on. Panasonic has a full solution pairing Pika’s islanding inverter with its batteries and modules. LG debuted its complete solar + storage system for the home. SimpliPhi has varied its case sizes and voltage range. Sonnen has gone full tilt into energy management + home automation – a long fantasized idea that is now real-life – that is more load shaping than load shifting.

It’s all very cool. The issue from installers we chatted with at the show is there’s no one software that can deftly handle all of the storage mathematics they need (those that are great for peak shaving can’t be used for resiliency, etc.). There’s more to figure out here, just like on the battery side, but each SPI feels closer and closer to the goal line.

5. Some cool C&I rooftop innovations.

The reigning champion for the “biggest solar opportunity with the biggest issues to solve,” the commercial and industrial rooftop, saw several big-time debuts to ease some of these headaches.

A ton of solar deals are off the table because of the commercial rooftop life cycle and price tag. The deals that do go through on a different timeline than the roof itself are going to be a huge headaches come roof replacement time. Headaches meaning stuff will for sure be broken when the solar system is removed, stored and put back on. Standard Solar and Carlisle Roofing teaming up to solve this at the outset with a bundled package — a new C&I silicone coating spray applied to the existing roof membrane (with optional insulating foam) that installed with the PV system. The deal is financed through a PPA agreement with Standard Solar, so the building owner is essentially paying for the new roof (good for 50+ years) during the 25-year PPA.

ESDEC rooftop solar mounting system

The ESDEC Flat-Fix

On the system side, available in the first time in the U.S., Holland-based ESDEC debuted its slick Flat-Fix commercial rooftop mounting system. The same lightweight design can be laid out in south-facing or east-west configurations and is built with one tool, keeping the SKUs at a minimum. The feet are adhered with glue (or a bolt if needed) and an optional ballast tray. The system is already proven but the team needed to make a few tweaks to launch in the U.S., mostly relating to cable management, all of which were cleverly designed like the rest of the system.

Remote C&I system design has never been easier thanks to Nearmap’s updates. Its digital surface and line of sight analysis produces a jaw-droppingly clear picture for 71 percent of the U.S. population that is updated 3 times per year. You can really tell the difference between obstruction or dirt, as well as accurately measure the pitch and dimensions of any surface. When combined with the newest version Aurora Solar’s software, Aurora estimates 10x performance upgrades for multi-megawatt, commercial-scale solar projects added with the ability to simulate the solar energy production of a PV system while designing, allowing real-time assessment of design choices and elimination of change orders. An enhanced “fill zone” functionality is also available to automatically optimize solar panel locations to maximize the number that fit within an available space.

6. The next big trend will emerge from the California solar mandate (and maybe it’s an old one?).

Consider a company like CertainTeed – been around for a long time, and didn’t have a lot new at its booth to discuss. Its solar products are focused mostly on roof-integrated options that are not as popular as traditional mounting + solar panels on an existing roof sold and installed by solar installers. But when all new homes in California are going to need to come with solar already on the roof, will builders and roofers favor something like this they can handle themselves? Or, consider SunFlare, a company with a flexible CIGs technology. In 2018 it seems like a niche product – can be installed on top of existing carports and other nontraditional areas, but it’s close to working with a high-end national homebuilder that liked its solar shingle because “it’s a roofing product, not a solar product,” thus allowing them to install new solar on a new house without contracting out. The president of ESDEC also mentioned that in Holland their mounting system is seen as so simple to install that HVAC companies are a big customer segment for them because they could easily add it to their service offering.

Will the mainstreaming of solar earlier in the building process end up cutting out companies and products that rule the day today? Maybe a wild thought, just remember to keep your hands and arms inside the solarcoaster at all times.

— Solar Builder magazine

Six solar industry storylines to watch from Solar Power International 2018

Q Cells

Photo of a cool booth setup.

Your Solar Builder editor entered the whirlwind of news, numbers and handshaking that is Solar Power International and emerged with a notepad filled with gibberish. What language is this? What secrets does it hold? We sent it to a forensics lab, the archaeological department at Oxford and the guy with wild hair on Ancient Aliens for their interpretations. After this thorough analysis, we believe these are the top solar story lines in a post-SPI world …

1. Focus shifts from federal politics to local action

You get the sense that the solar industry has finally punted on trying to waste much more time inching the message boulder up the current administration’s hill and is now putting those resources into local efforts. This is likely the better route to go anyway, and the initiatives announced at SPI could do the trick if developed.

Just before SPI kicked off, the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and The Solar Foundation unveiled the Solar Automated Permit Processing (SolarAPP) initiative, which is the latest collective effort of the industry to streamline permitting. Reforms include: A safety and skills training and certification program that allows residential and small commercial solar and battery storage installers to attest that their projects are compliant with applicable codes, to eliminate traditional multi-step permitting processes; a standardized online platform provided to local governments at no cost, a list of established equipment standards and/or certified equipment for solar and storage projects installed through the proposed process and more.

There have been several attempts at this over the years, all of which fell short, but this one might have a shot because of the timing. The economic case for solar has never been better, and the technology and techniques are proven with copious examples to highlight.

Also, what local government would turn down the promise of a ton more jobs? To grow that base of skilled solar workers around the country, the Solar Training Network introduced AmericanSolarWorkforce.org, an online platform to help solar companies recruit qualified candidates; allow solar job seekers to find career and training opportunities; and help the entire industry build a strong and diverse solar workforce. Using this platform, which is free of charge, employers can post opportunities on a solar job board and connect with thousands of candidates looking for solar career opportunities. Employers can also create company profiles, review candidate applications, and communicate with potential hires.

2. Solar pros see the short-comings of the industry and are actively trying to address them.

Two key examples here. First is in grid services. Features for grid services are mentioned all of the time now, from inverter and optimizer products to the need for storage and other ancillary services. I take it as a sign that the relationship between utilities and solar companies is now evolving past an adversarial stage because there’s nothing left to prove about solar as viable generating asset. Now, solar has to prove how it will best integrate and play nice on a wide scale over the long-term. This was always the case, but it feels everyone is getting on the same page about pursuing solutions.

For example, of all the things bouncing around the mind of CJ Colavito, VP of Engineering at Standard Solar, these days, he most wants to find a way to sync third-party radar forecasts with smart inverters for advanced ramp rate control — to ramp down voltage slowly prior to cloud cover that will cause voltage flicker.

Solar Power International

SEIA CEO Abigail Ross Hopper and SEPA CEO Julia Hamm discuss diversity as an important goal for their respective industries.

The second short-coming is a short-coming for most industries: diversity. Judging by comments during the opening session and the upcoming Solar Jobs Census, solar thought leaders realize the industry is in position to not just remake the grid, but the makeup of the American workforce – not just to be PC and nice but because there is value inherent in a diversified workforce with growth opportunities. Also, check out this initiative from SEIA to work with Historically Black Colleges.

3. The full solar life cycle needs more attention.

One area in the U.S. solar industry still in need of attention is the full sustainability of a solar project. For example, panel recycling is a fairly big can that keeps getting kicked down the road. A DNV GL report released at SPI listed stranded assets as a key question in its market mechanics. At some point we will run out of road and kick that can straight into a million tons of PV that needs to be put somewhere. This isn’t a crisis (at least not yet) because there are solutions, at least according to First Solar, which has developed a standard for doing so and been put its system in place. Solar is recycled fairly easily — and for a profit — in Europe and that model could be replicated here.

The next can soon to be kicked is in storage. Storage is basically the key to solar taking over the world, but storage is dirtier than solar on the clean energy scale. Cobalt is a safety hazard. Lithium needs to be mined and poses its own potential for fire. Lead-acid battery companies claim to have the most recyclable solution, but does it perform as well as the future needs? And also, it is comprised of lead and acid. This is stuff that needs to be fully considered within the grand plans.

4. So many storage solutions…

LG energy storage

The new LG energy storage system.

Speaking of storage, every turn on the trade show floor seemed to present a new energy storage system or bundle of products to solve all sorts of solar + storage equations, from simpler backup capabilities to time of use to peak shaving and on and on. Panasonic has a full solution pairing Pika’s islanding inverter with its batteries and modules. LG debuted its complete solar + storage system for the home. SimpliPhi has varied its case sizes and voltage range. Sonnen has gone full tilt into energy management + home automation – a long fantasized idea that is now real-life – that is more load shaping than load shifting.

It’s all very cool. The issue from installers we chatted with at the show is there’s no one software that can deftly handle all of the storage mathematics they need (those that are great for peak shaving can’t be used for resiliency, etc.). There’s more to figure out here, just like on the battery side, but each SPI feels closer and closer to the goal line.

5. Some cool C&I rooftop innovations.

The reigning champion for the “biggest solar opportunity with the biggest issues to solve,” the commercial and industrial rooftop, saw several big-time debuts to ease some of these headaches.

A ton of solar deals are off the table because of the commercial rooftop life cycle and price tag. The deals that do go through on a different timeline than the roof itself are going to be a huge headaches come roof replacement time. Headaches meaning stuff will for sure be broken when the solar system is removed, stored and put back on. Standard Solar and Carlisle Roofing teaming up to solve this at the outset with a bundled package — a new C&I silicone coating spray applied to the existing roof membrane (with optional insulating foam) that installed with the PV system. The deal is financed through a PPA agreement with Standard Solar, so the building owner is essentially paying for the new roof (good for 50+ years) during the 25-year PPA.

ESDEC rooftop solar mounting system

The ESDEC Flat-Fix

On the system side, available in the first time in the U.S., Holland-based ESDEC debuted its slick Flat-Fix commercial rooftop mounting system. The same lightweight design can be laid out in south-facing or east-west configurations and is built with one tool, keeping the SKUs at a minimum. The feet are adhered with glue (or a bolt if needed) and an optional ballast tray. The system is already proven but the team needed to make a few tweaks to launch in the U.S., mostly relating to cable management, all of which were cleverly designed like the rest of the system.

Remote C&I system design has never been easier thanks to Nearmap’s updates. Its digital surface and line of sight analysis produces a jaw-droppingly clear picture for 71 percent of the U.S. population that is updated 3 times per year. You can really tell the difference between obstruction or dirt, as well as accurately measure the pitch and dimensions of any surface. When combined with the newest version Aurora Solar’s software, Aurora estimates 10x performance upgrades for multi-megawatt, commercial-scale solar projects added with the ability to simulate the solar energy production of a PV system while designing, allowing real-time assessment of design choices and elimination of change orders. An enhanced “fill zone” functionality is also available to automatically optimize solar panel locations to maximize the number that fit within an available space.

6. The next big trend will emerge from the California solar mandate (and maybe it’s an old one?).

Consider a company like CertainTeed – been around for a long time, and didn’t have a lot new at its booth to discuss. Its solar products are focused mostly on roof-integrated options that are not as popular as traditional mounting + solar panels on an existing roof sold and installed by solar installers. But when all new homes in California are going to need to come with solar already on the roof, will builders and roofers favor something like this they can handle themselves? Or, consider SunFlare, a company with a flexible CIGs technology. In 2018 it seems like a niche product – can be installed on top of existing carports and other nontraditional areas, but it’s close to working with a high-end national homebuilder that liked its solar shingle because “it’s a roofing product, not a solar product,” thus allowing them to install new solar on a new house without contracting out. The president of ESDEC also mentioned that in Holland their mounting system is seen as so simple to install that HVAC companies are a big customer segment for them because they could easily add it to their service offering.

Will the mainstreaming of solar earlier in the building process end up cutting out companies and products that rule the day today? Maybe a wild thought, just remember to keep your hands and arms inside the solarcoaster at all times.

— Solar Builder magazine

Top Solar Projects of the Week (Nov. 14 – Nov. 18)

Adhesives company shows solar commitment with display panel

chemique adhesives solar projectThe 30 kW solar installation created by Velo Solar on the roof of Chemique Adhesives in Kennesaw, Ga., has begun operation. The array sits atop the North American headquarters of Chemique Adhesives, a company with revenues of about $17.5 million per year and customers throughout Europe, the Middle East and North America. Chemique, based in the U.K., makes industrial adhesives, sealants and adhesive application equipment.

The solar installation designed and built by Atlanta-based Velo Solar will reduce Chemique’s CO2 emissions by 30.6 tons annually, the equivalent of planting 784 trees.

In addition to the solar panels on the roof, the system installed by Velo Solar at Chemique Adhesives in Kennesaw includes a display panel in the lobby that will show the real-time output of the solar resource through the proprietary PowerEnfo analytical platform. Developed by Velo Solar’s parent company, PowerEnfo provides a constant information stream on energy consumption to facilitate effective energy management. It tracks asset performance and issues alerts on unusual events to keep them from becoming costly.

RELATED: Report: Rooftop solar provides even more value than retail rate metering 


New York auto dealer adds rooftop, carport

Yonkers, NY-based auto dealer Smith Cairns Ford Lincoln Mazda Subaru is turning to solar to save on its energy bills. Working with leading solar energy company, Standard Solar, the dealer installed a 1,272 panel, 394 kilowatt (kW) solar photovoltaic (PV) system. In addition to the 253kW array on its rooftop, the system also features two solar carports totaling 141 kW. The system was completed in October.

The rooftop and carport arrays, expected to produce approximately 472,000 kilowatt-hours of power per year, cover 100 percent of the dealer’s energy needs. The V-shaped carport arrays are rain and snow-proof, protecting the dealership’s auto inventory and providing a clean and dry environment for prospective buyers. The project also includes an electric vehicle (EV) charging station to support its EV inventory and EV customers.

RELATED: Best practices for constructing cost-effective carport projects 

 


Cool solar+storage microgrid solution gets up and running

solar+storage microgrid

Pure Power Solutions has completed a plug-and-play approach to solar+storage microgrids for remote locations with a system using standard shipping containers and energy dense, non-toxic battery technology from SimpliPhi Power. The first system is now operational at Vacherie Ranch, a 450-acre agricultural and recreational retreat located in Western Sonoma County, Calif.

Get all the details and look at a bunch of photos here.


Solect’s latest commercial install in New England

North Atlantic Corp (NAC), one of the largest millwork distributors and custom manufacturer of windows, doors, kitchens and stairs to the residential and commercial markets in New England, has partnered with Solect Energy of Hopkinton, Mass., to install a 1551 kilowatt (kW) solar energy system on the roof of its Somerset location. The solar array is projected to cover 90% of North Atlantic Corp’s annual electricity bill and will contribute to substantial savings on the company’s energy expenditures.

The installation comes at a particularly important time in NAC’s development, as their energy demands were expected to rise steeply with the completion of a 45,000 sq. ft. addition to their manufacturing facility. Now, they expect to see solar offset that increase dramatically.

RELATED: Northeast Solar Boom: Untapped commercial deals are about to pay off in New England 


EnterSolar to develop ground-mount for insurance giant

EnterSolar, a provider of solar photovoltaic solutions to the commercial marketplace, has been selected by Swiss Re to develop a 2-MW ground mounted solar system for the wholesale provider of reinsurance, insurance and other insurance-based forms of risk transfer. Construction will begin this fall with expected completion in the spring of 2017.

The system is designed to offset 60% of the power utilized by the Armonk campus, and will provide significant environmental benefits to the Westchester County community.

RELATED: The value of a team approach to fixed-tilt ground-mount projects 


 

Idaho’s new community solar push

Idaho community solar

The Idaho Public Utilities Commission is approving an Idaho Power application to build a 500-kilowatt community solar project in southeast Boise. The $1.16 million single-axis solar project on the southwest corner of Amity and Holcomb roads will allow up to 1,093 residential customers and 470 non-residential customers to buy one or more subscriptions (one subscription is a 320-watt panel) for the solar farm’s anticipated 25- year life.

Get the inside scoop here.

— Solar Builder magazine